English grammar dibagi ke dalam dua (2) bagian utama:
1. The Parts of Speech, dan
2. The Sentence
The Parts of Speech
Dibagi ke dalam delapan (8) kelompok:
nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.
1. Noun adalah kata benda untuk menyebutkan nama orang, tempat, sesuatu, kondisi, perasaan, atau kejadian. Kata benda (noun) dibagi menjadi dua (2), yaitu, common noun dan proper noun.
A Common noun adalah kata untuk menyebutkan tingkatan/kelompok orang, tempat, sesuatu, kondisi, perasaan atau kejadian. Contohnya: boy, girl, state, country, mountain, river, love, joy and peace. Common noun tidak dimulai dengan huruf kapital, kecuali jika digunakan pada awal kalimat atau ketika digunakan dengan proper noun. Contohnya: State University of Jakarta.
A proper noun adalah official name untuk seseorang, tempat, atau sesuatu. Contohnya: Harisman, Haniel, Hedva Phillia, Indonesia, Jakarta. A proper noun selalu dimulai dengan huruf kapital.
- A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun.
Examples: I, you, he, she, it, we, they, them, this, that, these, those, who, which, what. Sentence: “I love you.”
The pronoun “I” is always capitalized.
- An adjective is a word that describes or limits a noun or a pronoun.
Examples: a, an, the, one, my, our, your, her, his, its, their, red, big, good, evil, tall, short. Sentence: “Your mother is a goodwoman.”
- A verb is a word that expresses action or state of being.
Examples of action verbs: run, walk, fly, teach, learn, eat, sleep, work. “They walk to school.”
State of being verbs: be, is, am, are, feel, appear, sound, seem. Sentence: “They are tall.”
- An adverb is a word that describes or limits a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
Examples: then, today, now, tomorrow, soon, here, there, everywhere, quickly, beautifully, carefully, well, barely, nearly, completely. Sentence: “They walk quickly.”
- A preposition is a word that shows the relationship between a word that comes before it, and a noun or pronoun that follows it.
Examples: in, at, by, near, to, from, into, before, after, during, until, like. Sentence: “John ran to school.”
- A conjunction is a word that connects words, phrases, or clauses to one another.
Examples: and, but, yet. Sentence: “The son was hungry andneeded money.” The conjunction “and” links the first part of the sentence with the second part.
- An interjection is a word, or group of words, used to express sudden and strong feeling.
Examples: Ah! Oh! Wow! Oh no! Sentence: “Oh! How I want to go home!”
By learning the eight parts of speech and their meanings, you have taken a big step toward mastering the English language.
Now let us look briefly at the second major division of English grammar-The Sentence.
A sentence is a group of words joined together to express a complete thought.
Every sentence is made up of two main parts:
(1) the subject, and
(2) the predicate.
1. The subject is the part of the sentence that tells who or what the sentence is about.
For example, “God is love.” In this sentence, “God” is the subject. He is the person being discussed.
2. The predicate is the part of the sentence that tells what the subject is or does. The predicate always includes a verb. In the sentence above, “is love” is the predicate. That is what is said about God.
Types of Sentences
Sentences are divided into four classes according to the way they express a thought:
(3) imperative, and
- A declarative sentence makes a statement about something and ends with a period (.).
Example: “A man had two sons.”
- An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark (?).
Example: “What does all this mean?”
- An imperative sentence makes a request or gives a command, and ends with a period or an exclamation point (!).
Examples: “Hurry!” “Bring our best calf and kill it so that we can celebrate.”
In imperative sentences, “you” is understood: (You) bring our best calf.”
- An exclamatory sentence says something with force and emotion and ends with an exclamation point (!).
Originally published in https://www.worldenglishinstitute.org/admin/lesson/read/50